By Little Pro on 2018-03-06 Views: Update:2018-03-07
Acute toxicity describes the adverse effects of a substance that result either from a single exposure or from multiple exposures in a short period of time (usually less than 24 hours). Acute toxicity tests in animals (i.e, rat) use mortality as the main observational endpoint in order to derive a LD50 or LC50. Acute toxicitity studies usually include 3 routes: oral, dermal and inhalation.
There are 5 acute toxicity categories under GHS although some jurisdictions (i.e, EU) have not implemented category 5. The table below shows GHS classification criteria for acute toxicity for different routes. LD50 and LC50 values are needed for GHS classification. Acute toxicity category 1 represents the most severe toxicity.
For a mixture containing a substance that has been classified as acutely toxic, you need to calculate the Acute Toxicity Estimates(ATEs) of the mixture first and then compare it against the classification criteria above to determine the acute toxicity category of a mixture.