By Little Pro on 2016-04-25 Views: Update:2017-01-18
The primary goal of repeated dose toxicity studies is to characterize the adverse toxicological effects occurring as a result of repeated daily dosing with, or exposure, to a substance for a specified period up to the expected lifespan of the test species (usually from 3 weeks up to 2 years in animal studies). Effects include changes in morphology, physiology, growth or life span, clinical chemistry and behaviour.
The repeated dose toxicity studies are essential for the quantitative risk assessment of chemical substances. The studies yield information on general characteristics of the toxicity, the toxicity to specific target organs, the dose–response relationship, responses to toxic metabolites formed in the organism, delayed responses, cumulative effects, and information on reversibility/irreversibility of the effect.
Typically, a NOAEL or LOAEL can be obtained from repeated dose toxicity studies.
NOAEL is not only used for determining the hazard classification of the specific target organ systematic toxicity of a chemical substance, but also used to derive threshold safety exposure dose to humans such as derived no effect level (DNEL), occupational exposure limit (OEL) and acceptable daily intake (ADI).
GHS has set classification criteria for classifying substances and mixtures that produce specific target organ toxicity arising from repeated exposure. All significant health effects that impair function, both reversible or irreversible, immediate and/or delayed are included.
NOAEL from standard 90d repeated dose toxicity study serves as the most important guidance value to determine the classification of the specific target organ toxicity of a chemical substance. NOAEL from repeated dose toxicity studies of greater or lesser duration can be used to derive equivalent guidance value by extrapolation.
|Category||Classification Criteria and Guidance Value|
Reliable evidence on the substance or mixture (including bridging) of an adverse effect on specific organ/systems or systemic toxicity in humans or animals. May be named for specific organ/system.
For tested substances and mixtures:
Mixture that lacks sufficient data, but contains Category 1 ingredient: ≥ 1 to ≤ 10% for some authorities; and ≥ 10% for all authorities.
Evidence on the substance or mixture (including bridging) of an adverse effect on specific organ/systems or systemic toxicity from animal studies or humans. May be named for specific organ/system.
For substances and tested mixtures:
Mixture that lacks sufficient data, but contains Category 1 ingredient: ≥ 1.0 but ≤ 10% for some authorities and/or contains Category 2 ingredient: ≥ 1.0 or ≥ 10%.
In repeated dose toxicity studies, usually 3 dose levels are given. The highest of three dose levels should be chosen with the aim to induce toxicity but not death. A descending sequence of dose levels should be selected to demonstrate any dose-related response and a no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) at the lowest dose level.
The guidelines for subacute, subchronic and chronic repeated dose toxicity studies are listed as follows:
||NOAEL or LOAEL|
||NOAEL or LOAEL|
||NOAEL or LOAEL|
You have learned the definition of repeated dose toxicity, different types of repeated dose toxicity studies (sub-acute, sub-chronic, chronic), dose descriptor for repeated toxicity (NOAEL and LOAEL), GHS classification criteria for specific target organ toxicity and testing guidelines.